Anatomy Physiology

Download Animal Life at Low Temperature by John Davenport PDF

By John Davenport

To people, chilly has a pretty optimistic caliber. 'Frostbite', 'a nip within the air', 'biting cold', all show the concept that of chilly as an entity which assaults the physique, numbing and harmful it within the approach. most likely the richness of descriptive English during this quarter stems from the early reports of a gaggle of basically tropical apes, making their dwelling on a chilly and windswept island workforce part­ manner among the Equator and the Arctic. in the course of a systematic schooling we quickly research that there's no such factor as chilly, merely a scarcity of warmth. chilly doesn't invade us; warmth easily deserts. Later nonetheless we come to understand that temperature is a mirrored image of kinetic power, and that the volume of kinetic power in a method is dependent upon the rate of molecular move. regardless of this attention, it's tough to desert the practical prejudices of palaeolithic Homo sapiens shivering in his huts and caves. for instance; appreciating polar undergo is maybe as cozy whilst swimming from ice floe to ice floe as we're whilst swimming in the summertime Mediterranean isn't really effortless; figuring out the thermal sensa­ tions of a 'cold-blooded' earthworm nearly most unlikely. we should be cautious of an anthropocentric perspective whilst contemplating the results of chilly on different species.

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In Europe, as one travels north, deciduous woods are replaced by conifers and then by birch scrub. Finally trees (arbitrarily defined as woody plants of man size) disappear altogether (,treeline') to be replaced by tundra (marsh, grasses, sedges, moss and lichens). The treeline is also affected by altitude, and has often been changed by Man's activities too (conifers are often seen in northern Norway or in Iceland at latitudes which they would not normally survive - people plant them in sheltered sites and protect them from frost in the winter).

Brown adipose gains its name because it is packed with mitochondria containing cytochromes of the respiratory chain; the cytochromes provide the brown colour which contrasts with the white or yellow appearance of normal adipose tissue. Brown fat is invariably well vascularized (in contrast to storage fat deposits which often have scanty blood supplies). Most tissues which are rich in mitochondria are also laden with ATP. In the case of brown adipose tissue this is not the case, because levels of ATP synthetase are low and the tissue is capable of a specialized breakdown of carbohydrates and fatty acids in which energy is lost as heat rather than stored as ATP.

Glycolysis Glycolysis NAOH ••_ __ FAD H2 pox ida t ion heat NAOH FAOH 2 - MATRIX Heat production 31 move back across the membrane. Most of the mitochrondrial membrane is impermeable to protons, which can only return to the matrix through localized channels. When brown adipose is not generating heat, the protons return to the matrix through channels which are associated with the enzyme protein ATP synthetase, and much of the energy (perhaps two thirds) is stored as ATP, the remainder being lost as heat.

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